Semester Hours: 3

Foundations and physics of geometrical optics, Fermat?s principles and Huygen wavelets, refraction and reflection. The many forms of Snell?s Law. Optical path lengths, geometrical wavefronts and rays. Ray tracing, ynu-chart and matrix methods. Gaussian imagery and paraxial optics, conjugate elements, cardinal points, and image-object relations. Stops and pupils, chief and marginal rays, vignetting, and the optical or Lagrange invariant. The y-y bar diagram, design of common systems: objectives, magnifiers, microscopes, collimators and detectors. Optical glasses and chromatic aberrations, wavefront and transverse aberrations, spot diagrams and ray fan plots.